地理标志（GIS）跨越三个有争议的国际法领域：国际贸易，知识产权和农业政策。一种 GI, similar to a trademark, marks a product as coming from a specific area and attributes a specific standard to that region. Champagne and wines are well-known GIs.
尽管 GIs have a long history, they have recently become a focal point in the World Trade Organization’s debate over the extension of intellectual property 权利。我们声称，由于全球经济的重大变化，GIS已获得greater political and economic importance. In a rapidly globalizing world, proponents of GIs often pose broader questions about authenticity, heritage, and locality.
在描述在国际法捍卫GIS的根源后，我们检查了这些罕见的知识产权的规范基础。在国际法中，一些GI安全是合理的。但是，世界贸易组织’S当前的安全水平 - 以及当前的欧盟欧洲联盟要求更多的保护 - 不合理。
旅行谈话主要集中在着名的版权，商标和专利上。该协议还涵盖了众所周知的主题，如植物遗传资源，半导体面具工作，以及区域适应症。 GIS类似于商标，因为它们与特定区域而不是特定制造商的产品附加到产品上。一些GIS是众所周知的，例如Cognac和Roquefort。其他人缺乏众所周知的，例如来自印度的Kolhapuri Chappals或Zolhapuri Chappals从俄罗斯绘制托盘。欧洲国家对GIS特别感兴趣。实际上，增加了GI防守长期被视为旧世界的企图，以获得对新的新的法律保护，特别是用于农产品。
GI Security是Quiver的一个箭头，寻求保护他们的农业部门免受来自国外的低成本竞争，特别是在欧洲国家。 gis是一个“red-hot problem”在国际法中，因为他们属于农业，商业和知识产权。在1891年的马德里协议和第二次世界大战后的框架内，TRIPS协议为葡萄酒和烈酒提供了额外的安全性。第一个标准是一个“非误导性要求。” Second, “即使是暗示产品的真实起源，或者地理指示用于翻译或后跟诸如“kind,” “kind,” “form,” “imitation,” or the like,”禁止使用GI。
一些 bilateral GI agreements have been signed, the majority of which is based on the TRIPS provision, which requires GI wine and spirits talks at the behest of a WTO member.
双边 deals are typically signed and implemented as part of Free Trade Agreements (FTAs), which provide for trade-offs in other sectors over the process of the negotiations.The European Commission has signed a list of bilateral agreements in wine and spirits. By 2010, the European Commission had reached agreements with Albania, Australia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Canada, Chile, Croatia, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Mexico, Montenegro, South Africa, Switzerland, and the United States in the area of wine and spirits alone.Despite the TRIPS Agreement’s grandfather clauses and genericity exemptions, the EU has secured the security of its GIs in regions where they were formerly used as generic terms by these bilateral agreements.This procedure has been dubbed the “claw-back” of GIs in industry jargon.
估计 of GI 注册，危险， and exports are neither detailed nor reliable, with large differences in number and value between sources. Globally, the number of lawfully covered GIs is estimated to be about 10.3 thousand, with a trade volume of more than USD 50 billion (EUR 39 billion).Around 90% of GIs originate in OECD countries, with France, Italy, and Spain accounting for 10% of all registered GIs and 70% of the overall value of GIs globally. The rest of the world is just a small part of the picture, but it is growing.